Ah yes, the Art Deco style. Several elements came into play with this style. The first two things were glamor and optimism. Times were good and people were happy. As a result, they looked to incorporate some of the glamor that they saw surrounding many of the celebrities at the time and they had the means to do that. Advancements and prosperity were generally moving along at a good clip. Where as you would see things like an inlayed dragonfly in the Art Nouveau style that proceeded Deco to hearken back to preindustrial life, during this period in history there was much more of an embrace of industry and modernism in general. As an interesting twist, one other influence on the Art Deco style was completely unrelated to the embrace of modernism and cubism of the time. Archeology also made some great discoveries at the time. The the tomb of Tutankhamun, Pompeii, and Troy were all discovered during this time and it had a direct impact upon the Art Deco style. So now that we have a taste of the when and why surrounding this style, let's get to the what part.
While the Art Deco style has often be described as eclectic, there are some reoccurring themes. Much of the structure is based upon geometric shapes, stepped curves, and repeated patterns showing distinct planning and intention rather than a more natural, random aesthetic. Chevron patterns, ziggurat-shapes, fountains, and the sunburst motif were common as well as the stepped style reminiscent of Mayan temples and the earliest Egyptian pyramids. In terms of architecture, there is perhaps no better example than the top of the Chrysler building.
|Source Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Deco|
As for materials, aluminium, stainless steel, lacquer, Bakelite, Chrome and inlaid wood were often used. The wood was often exotic and the inlay was more so. Rather than being left with a more natural feel, wood was often lacquered to give it a more sleek and streamlined appearance. Exotic materials such as sharkskin, zebra skin, semi precious stones were also evident.
The Art Deco style began to decline in the 1930's. If you wanted to point to one or two things that rather killed off the style, it would be its own success and the economy of the 1930's. One of the things that was a draw for many in terms of the style was that it had a feel of exclusivity or specialness to at least a certain extent. As industry got better and better at mass producing these items, they became less special and exclusive. It then started to get derided as gaudy and presenting a false sense of luxury. Couple that with the economic downturn of the 1930's and the glamorous, jubilant style just didn't fit with the times. The style faded at that point, until a resurgence in interest came about during the 1960s with the first book on the subject by Bevis Hillier in 1968 and later an exhibition organized by him in Minneapolis in 1971.